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After previously having worked in local government, socio-economic research and teaching, I retired from a career in software development in 2019. I am now a part-time PhD Welsh history student. I have an academic background in social science and science.


My research focusses upon the Ebbw Fach valley during the interwar years in what was northern Monmouthshire . I am looking at attempts to provide alternatives to full-time, permanent paid work during an era of extremely high levels of unemployment. This was an era when central and local government funded temporary work programmes. Alongside this, voluntary and faith groups were active in providing unpaid work in clubs and on public works projects. A major theme of government policy, however, was to encourage the migration of the unemployed to more prosperous parts of Britain and to the Empire, supported by training and transference schemes.