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Barend De Graaf

Dr Barend De Graaf


School of Biosciences

+44 29208 74766
Sir Martin Evans Building, Room W2.44, Museum Avenue, Cardiff, CF10 3AX
Available for postgraduate supervision


Research overview

Fertilization in higher plants is the result of a series of successful interactions between pollen and pistils of the same species. An understanding of pollen tube growth and the interactions of pollen and growing pollen tubes with the pistil is fundamental to basic plant sciences. Sexual reproduction in flowering plants involves species specific communication events. Upon pollen landing, pollen and pistil are being recognized as 'own' or 'foreign' which results in acceptance or rejection, respectively. After a successful pollination and compatible interaction between growing pollen tubes and several pistil tissues, fertilization occurs and portions of the pistil develop into a fruit containing the seeds. Although significant progres has been made in our understanding of which & how pollen and pistil proteins play a role in the communication between both partners during compatible pollen pistil interactions, yet very little is known about how male and female partners of different plant species discriminate between own and foreign. We investigate the mechanisms of pollen and pistil acceptance and rejection during plant reproduction by identifying pistil and pollen proteins involved in these processes. Furthermore we try to characterize pollen and pistil proteins that mediate successful pollen-pistil interactions and in a species specific manner.

Interested in joining my lab as a self-funded post-graduate student or a postdoc/fellow? Please contact me by email.




















Book sections



Pollen Pistil Communication and Membrane Trafficking in Plants

The angiosperms (flowering plants) include the most diverse, and largest, phylum in the plant kingdom with more than 350.000 different species. During evolution, over about 130 million years, the angiosperms developed an enormous variety of flowers. Each species generated a flowering program with its own specific flower morphology, sexual reproduction mechanisms, and protection against pathogens. For a large number of flowering plants, reproduction success depends entirely on specific interactions with members of the animal kingdom to collect and deliver pollen, such as bees, flies, beetles, moths, butterflies, wasps, ants, but also birds, bats and mice. In addition, many different animal predators are essential for seed dispersal ultimately. These sometimes highly specialized plant-animal relations with respect to the pollination process and seed dispersal must be co-evolved (Darwin, 1862).

Approximately half of the angiosperm families include species exhibiting one of several forms of self incompatibility whereas the other half is self-compatible. The terms self-compatible (SC) and self-incompatible (SI) represent the property of flowers to respectively accept or specifically reject self pollen, i.e., pollen from plants with the same genotype. Moreover, a large number of both, SC and SI, plant species invest much energy in the development of colourful and odorous flowers with nectar to attract and reward pollinators. SI and the formation of conspicuous flowers are typical examples of means to prevent inbreeding and promote outbreeding. In addition, SI may have an additional function: the protection of SI-species against pollen of closely related SC-species. Beside SI, both SI and SC-species must have additional 'recognition' and 'rejection' mechanisms playing a role during interspecific and intergeneric crossings. Ultimately in all angiosperms, independent of the presence of active pollination and fertilization barriers, flowering must result in successful compatible interactions to guarantee the next generation of seeds.

Adhesion of pollen to the stigma is considered as one of the first interactions in pollen-pistil recognition. Directly after pollen adhesion, pollen and pistil factors can be exchanged and may trigger responses in both pollen and/or pistils. These responses can have a promoting or inhibitory effect towards pollen tube germination and pistil sustainability and, in turn, create an optimal environment for species specific pollen-pistil interactions. How pollen and pollen tubes communicate with pistil tissues and/or vice versa during the progamic phase of compatible pollen-pistil interactions is largely unknown.

Pollen tube growth is achieved by tip growth. Pollen tube extension is a highly polarized process and restricted to the tube tip where secretory vesicles fuse with the tip membrane (A). Part of this membrane is retrieved by clathrin mediated endocytosis which occurs just behind the growing tip (B). Currently, the role of endocytosis in pollen tube growth, mainly based on in vitro pollen tube tip growth studies, is believed to be the retrieval of excess of pollen tube membrane and the recycling of various protein fractions from the growing tip to maintain pollen tube architecture and the progression of tip growth.

Proper regulated membrane trafficking between the pollen tube membrane and the different pollen tube compartments, such as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), golgi, endosomes and vacuole(s), is crucially important for the rapid tip growth but also for regulating the direction of pollen tube growth.

I am particularly interested in the role of pollen tube membrane trafficking, i.e., endocytosis, in the communication between pollen and pistils after compatible (own) and incompatible (foreign) pollinations.

Interested in joining my lab as a self-funded post-graduate student or a postdoc/fellow? Please contact me by email.


Undergraduate Teaching

Year 1: BI1004 The Dynamic Cell - & Module Leader

Year 2: BI2132 Genetics & Its Applications

Year 3: BI3151 Plants for the Future: Frontiers in Plant Science - & Module Leader (Initiator & Development)

Post-Graduate Teaching:

            MRes BIOSCIENCES - Deputy Leader

            BIT002 Research Techniques in Bioscience - Module Leader & Teaching

            BIT013 Research Projec Presentations


  • Plant Reproduction
  • Membrane Trafficking
  • Plant Cell Signalling
  • Plant Biotechnology